Nutrition is the science that expound the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to development of mental and physical health, maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.It is a process of taking nutrients in food and digesting them. It includes food absorption, intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion.

There are two types of Nutrition:




These are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include minerals and vitamin. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, it helps to maintain immune function, blood clotting and many other functions. On the other hand, minerals play an important role in development and growth, bone growth, fluid balance and several other processes.

Different types and function of Micro Nutrition :

These can be divided into four categories: water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macro minerals and trace minerals.

Moreover, vitamins and minerals are absorbed in similar ways in our body and interact in many processes.


Nutrients are used for health, energy, growth, and bodily functions by organisms. These substances are needed in small amounts or larger amounts. Substances that are needed in large amounts are called macronutrients.

Different types and function of Macro nutrients :

  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)

There are three macronutrients required by humans: carbohydrates , lipids, and proteins. These macronutrients enhance energy in the form of calories. For example:

  • In protein, there are 4 calories per gram.
  • In carbohydrate, there are 4 calories per gram.
  • And in lipids, there are 9 calories per gram.

NUTRITIVE COMPONENTS OF DIET:A diet which contains all the food items which is necessary for human body to maintain the body for good health. It should be made up of all basic elements. Therefore, all the components of diet are placed in the following groups :

1. Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches, it contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are three types :

1. Sugar found in sugar cane, dates etc.

2. Starch found in rice, wheat, potatoes, etc

3. Cellulose found in fruits and vegetables.

2. Proteins : Proteins are complex chemical substance that is present in all living organisms. It contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Some proteins are also contain iron and phosphorus. They are useful for our mental and physical growth. Protein plays vital function by repairing the wear and tear of tissues. Protein contains great nutritional value for our growth and development and are directly involved in the chemical processes which is essential for life. They are important for our body. Basically, these are found in pulses, milk and milk products, beans, meat and eggs.

3. Fats : Fats are good source of energy. One gram of fat contains 9.3 calories of energy. But they may difficult to digest. Some examples of fats are butter, oil, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major source of energy in the body.Fat also has many other important functions in the body, and a moderate amount is needed in the diet for good health. So, too much fat or too much of the wrong type of fat can be harmful.

4. Mineral salts:

The human body regulates how much sodium it consumes. If consumption is too high, the kidneys speed up the process of getting rid of it.

Too much level of sodium can cause to kidney stones, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. Iron deficiency affects nearly 200 million people all over world.

5. Vitamins: Vitamin are required by the body in very small quantities. They are complex chemical substances which is essential for human body. Vitamin do not give us energy but act as catalysts in various body process. They have to be supplemented by our diet. Our body needs at least 13 vitamins.


1. Spices: Such as cardamom, chillies, pepper, turmeric, clove etc. these are helpful in making tasty food but they are aid in digestion.

2. Fibres: Fresh fruits contain lot of fibre. Fibre cellulose assist in bowel movement.

3. Water: It is a basic requirement of human body. It helps in digestion and eliminates the waste products.

4. Food additives: They are colouring and flavouring agents, which is so called Repining of food.

5. Artificial sweeteners : These sweeteners do not sugar or carbohydrates in food.

6. Preservatives: It help us to preserve our food for a longer time but they do not havr any nutritive value.

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