SPORTS AND NUTRITION

Nutrition is the science that expound the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to development of mental and physical health, maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.It is a process of taking nutrients in food and digesting them. It includes food absorption, intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion.

There are two types of Nutrition:

1. MICRONUTRIENTS

2. MACRONUTRIENTS

1. MICRONUTRIENTS :

These are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include minerals and vitamin. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, it helps to maintain immune function, blood clotting and many other functions. On the other hand, minerals play an important role in development and growth, bone growth, fluid balance and several other processes.

Different types and function of Micro Nutrition :

These can be divided into four categories: water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macro minerals and trace minerals.

Moreover, vitamins and minerals are absorbed in similar ways in our body and interact in many processes.

2. MACRONUTRIENTS :

Nutrients are used for health, energy, growth, and bodily functions by organisms. These substances are needed in small amounts or larger amounts. Substances that are needed in large amounts are called macronutrients.

Different types and function of Macro nutrients :

  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)

There are three macronutrients required by humans: carbohydrates , lipids, and proteins. These macronutrients enhance energy in the form of calories. For example:

  • In protein, there are 4 calories per gram.
  • In carbohydrate, there are 4 calories per gram.
  • And in lipids, there are 9 calories per gram.

NUTRITIVE COMPONENTS OF DIET:A diet which contains all the food items which is necessary for human body to maintain the body for good health. It should be made up of all basic elements. Therefore, all the components of diet are placed in the following groups :

1. Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches, it contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are three types :

1. Sugar found in sugar cane, dates etc.

2. Starch found in rice, wheat, potatoes, etc

3. Cellulose found in fruits and vegetables.

2. Proteins : Proteins are complex chemical substance that is present in all living organisms. It contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Some proteins are also contain iron and phosphorus. They are useful for our mental and physical growth. Protein plays vital function by repairing the wear and tear of tissues. Protein contains great nutritional value for our growth and development and are directly involved in the chemical processes which is essential for life. They are important for our body. Basically, these are found in pulses, milk and milk products, beans, meat and eggs.

3. Fats : Fats are good source of energy. One gram of fat contains 9.3 calories of energy. But they may difficult to digest. Some examples of fats are butter, oil, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major source of energy in the body.Fat also has many other important functions in the body, and a moderate amount is needed in the diet for good health. So, too much fat or too much of the wrong type of fat can be harmful.

4. Mineral salts:

The human body regulates how much sodium it consumes. If consumption is too high, the kidneys speed up the process of getting rid of it.

Too much level of sodium can cause to kidney stones, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. Iron deficiency affects nearly 200 million people all over world.

5. Vitamins: Vitamin are required by the body in very small quantities. They are complex chemical substances which is essential for human body. Vitamin do not give us energy but act as catalysts in various body process. They have to be supplemented by our diet. Our body needs at least 13 vitamins.

NON-NUTRITIVE COMPONENTS OF DIET :

1. Spices: Such as cardamom, chillies, pepper, turmeric, clove etc. these are helpful in making tasty food but they are aid in digestion.

2. Fibres: Fresh fruits contain lot of fibre. Fibre cellulose assist in bowel movement.

3. Water: It is a basic requirement of human body. It helps in digestion and eliminates the waste products.

4. Food additives: They are colouring and flavouring agents, which is so called Repining of food.

5. Artificial sweeteners : These sweeteners do not sugar or carbohydrates in food.

6. Preservatives: It help us to preserve our food for a longer time but they do not havr any nutritive value.

DIET

Diet is the aggregation of food consumed by a person or other living organisms. The word diet implies the use of particular intake of nutritive food for good health or management of weight reasons. While humans are omnivores , there are different culture and different cities while each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food traditional and taboos. The reason may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual’s dietary choice may be less and unhealthy for health. Our diet consist of a variety of food items. Furthermore, our body derives energy from food. Energy and the heat take from the oxidation of food, help us in doing excellent work, in our growth and development, in protecting us from diseases and repairing worn-out tissues. Therefore, it is mandatory to make proper selection of food item to constitute the required diet.

A BALANCED DIET

A balance diet is one that contains a variety of food items in such proportions that the body is able to get all the nutrients needed to maintain health and vitality. The quality of food required differs from person to person. It depends on age, sex, profession and physiological conditions.To get the real nutrition from your diet, you should consume the majority of food in your daily diet:

  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Pulses and cereals
  • Milk and milk products
  • Meat and fish
  • Fats and sugar

A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Being healthy and physically fit should be a necessary part of your life. Its a way of living a happy and healthy life.  Living a healthy lifestyle can help prevent diseases, short-term and long-term illnesses. Feeling happy and good yourself and taking care of your health is important for your self-esteem and personality. A healthy lifestyle is a right way to live a happy and good life.

There is no one such particular food item that can provide whole nutrition to our body for functioning, so in order to have a balanced and healthy diet we need to have a variety of nutritional food to ensure that we get all the nutrients in appropriate quantity of food.

It totally depends on person’s age, sex, body weight. Although, adults need nutrients for optimal body growth and development and for functioning essential functions of body, infants and children need nutrients for growth. Moreover, they need 2-3 times more the amount per kg body weight as compared to adults.

WEIGHT LOSS AND GAIN
A specific and healthy diet may be chosen to seek weight loss or weight gain. Loosing or gaining weight can change the energy balance and it can be the reason of increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. Some foods are particularly recommended, for conformity to the essential for a particular and healthy diet. These diets are often recommended in conjunction with exercise and yoga. Particularly, weight loss programs can be injurious to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be the reason of healthy and essential diet. The terms “healthy diet” and “diet for weight management” are related, as the two promote healthy weight management. Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems or health diseases and will provide the body with the right weight and it coordinates the balance of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.COMPLETE NUTRITION REQUIRED
Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of minerals, vitamins , essential amino acids from protein and necessary fatty acids from fat-containing and nutritive food, also energy from food those who are in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits play a vital role in the quality of good and healthy life. These diets may require multivitamin nutritional food, which is required for human body.
Many people choose food from animal sources for good health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public mentality about diets have lower impacts are known to be wrong. People those who prefer raw foods is another contemporary trend.

BENEFITS OF SPORTS

Sports is an important part of one’s life. It can be a Game Changer. Sports can help you in making good personality.

Sport can help us feel relax, fresh and healthier, and it’s just a start of it. Sport can also be the reason of fun. Moreover, when we play in a team or when we play for each other. It enhances leadership skills, sportsmanship and also helps in boosting unity and confidence.

1. Improves immune system:
Playing sports on regular days cause more oxygen to be drawn into the body with carbon monoxide and it helps to remove waste gases from human body. This improves the immune system, lung capacity during sport, improving lung function and it keeps us healthier.

2. Build your confidence:
Frequent training and working hard towards seasonal goals you can build your confidence in public and further you can also improves your abilities. This is specifically noticeable through matches and tournaments where you and your team put your efforts to the test for the wins.
Moreover, incremental achievements throughout the year can build personal confidence over time and achievements.

3.Team work :
Sport brings together a combination of people from different communities, religions, backgrounds and beliefs. It can offer a new way to meet and interact with others that you may not do with day to day. So, as a result, you can make new friends and you can interact with new people. And moreover who knows, playing a sport in a team might even open new career and business opportunities for you.

4.Promotes self-motivation :
Exercise and sports activate chemicals in the human brain that can make you relaxed and happier. Take part in an activity that improves your fitness. If you play sports outside, you can have fresh air which is said to promote a good night’s sleep.

5. A healthy and strong heart :
Human heart is a muscle and it needs frequent exercise to keep it healthy and fit. A strong and healthy heart can pump blood efficiently around your body. When a regular and frequent exercise is done, your heart will pump blood efficiently. Stronger and healthier hearts can improve overall health of the body.

6. Reduces stress level:
When you are physically active your mind will get a chance to unplug from daily stresses and daily problems of life. Physical exercise on regular routine, reduces the stress hormones in your body and stimulates the release of endorphins. These endorphins may give you more energy and focus for goals and achievements.

7. Promotes good mental health:
Regular participation in sport and being sporty can also promote good mental health. This includes improving your decision making power, mood, enhancing your sense of well-being, reducing anxiety, fighting from negative emotions and protecting against depression.

8.Healthy development of children:
Children who play sports develop stronger bones and muscles, leading to a chance of better recovery from physical injury. Physical exercise before the onset of puberty has been study as a way of reaching peak bone mass, enabling children to become stronger – a great foundation for future growth.